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Václav Havel ( 1936 – 2011)
The playwright, writer and the last president of Czechoslovakia was born October 5, 1936 in Prague. He grew up in a known business family, his father Václav M. Havel was the architect, builder
First Republic's parents' activities were the reason why the young Wenceslas Communist authorities prevented after leaving school in 1951 to study further. Havel started an apprenticeship as a chemical laboratory assistant and passed a high school diploma to work at the evening high school. For political reasons, he was not accepted to any high school with a humanities focus. He decided therefore to the Faculty of Economics of Czech Technical University, but the institution after two years left.
At that time he worked as a stage technician, first in the ABC Theatre and since 1960 at the Theatre Na Zabradli. Interest on humanitarian values later brought him to the remote study dramaturgy at the Theatre Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts, which ended in 1966 commentary on the play Eduard, who later became the basis for his play "The Increased Difficulty of Concentration".
In 1956, he met Olga Šplíchalová and although both came from different backgrounds (Olga was a descendant of the working families of Zizkov), soon become very close. After eight years, in 1964 married.
Since the age of twenty Havel actively contributed to literary journals named May, Shape and Notebooks. Later started Theatre Na Zabradli featuring his allegorical play, aimed against the contemporary situation in the society. At the 4th Congress of the Czechoslovak Writers lectures Havel, one of the manifestations of criticism monopoly of the Communist Party, became a member of the Club of Committed Non-Party and chairman of the Club of Independent Writers.¨
After the suppression of the Prague Spring in 1968 by Warsaw Pact troops Havel continues to harsh criticism of the regime. At that time, may not exercise their profession and works as a laborer in a brewery Trutnov, simultaneously writes in samizdat. In 1975, wrote an open letter to President Husak, which highlights the contradictions accumulated in Czech society. The highlight of his activity, however, becomes two years later publication of Charter 77, Havel was with Jiri Hajek Jan Patocka and one of the first three speakers that initiative, which called for the respect of fundamental rights and freedoms in Czechoslovakia. In April 1979, he co-founded the Committee for the Defence of the Unjustly Persecuted.
For his attitude was the same year arrested and sentenced to four and a half years in prison. In 1983 he was paroled for health reasons, yet again involved in the dissident movement. At this time, Czechoslovak authorities made it impossible to publish any of Havel's texts. Their almost complete edition took care of the German publishing house Rowohlt based in Hamburg.
In the second half of the eighties Václav Havel was imprisoned twice, most recently in 1989, by that time, the Communist regime out of breath and it was only a matter of time before the mass discontent reflected in direct conflict with the state. Also, because the new signed the petition "A Few Sentences" tens of thousands of people, unlike the Charter 77, which appeared under the signatures of several hundred people.
Detonator, which kicked off the fall of the totalitarian regime, a peaceful demonstration of students on November 17, 1989, by the communist regime brutally suppressed a police intervention on National Avenue in Prague. In the face of subsequent civic movement to challenge students and artists. At a meeting of the Drama Club on November 19 Václav Havel was appointed leader of the Civic Forum as its candidate was December 29 even then Federal Assembly elected president of Czechoslovakia. In the inaugural speech promised to lead the country to free elections, which met in the summer of next step.
New Federal Assembly confirmed the 5 July 1990 Havel in the function. During his second term, however, a rift between the former Czech and Slovak political representatives over the future arrangement. The deep split in the Federal Assembly led to the fact that Havel gained in the July 1992 elections enough votes. Although he was asked to remain in office until the election of a new president, passed on July 20 mandate on the grounds that it can not continue to fulfill the obligations of the oath of allegiance to the Federal Republic.
After the breakup of the Czechoslovak federation Havel ended his stay of several months in seclusion after election January 26, 1993, he was elected the first Czech president. His wife Olga alongside heads of state focused mainly on charitable activities. Inspired by the work of the Committee for the Defence of the Unjustly Prosecuted, founded in 1990 by the Committee of Good Will, whose activities are focused on helping the physically and mentally handicapped. In January 1996, after a severe illness died.
At the end of that year fell seriously ill and president. Radical surgical procedure in which Havel was withdrawn part of the lungs, however, led to his recovery. Shortly after his release from the hospital with second Havel married actress Dagmar Veškrnová. In a difficult political situation after the "Sarajevo assassination" was January 28, 1998 elected to his last term. The last years of his reign significantly influence both health problems and deepening duel with Vaclav Klaus, who later became his successor. Presidential mandate expired Vaclav Havel 2. February 2003.
For his literary and dramatic work of Václav Havel was awarded a number of prestigious awards, is a member of many international clubs writers. For his conviction and life-long efforts to uphold human rights has been nominated several times for the Nobel Peace Prize laureate and became the highest state honors in many states.
After leaving office, Václav Havel still commenting on politics and supported the Green party Green policy is pronounced since the 80s of the 20th century, which supported the German party Die Grünen.
After a long break wrote another play of Leaving (premiered in 2008), inspired by his own experience of politics. Following the example of American presidents Vaclav Havel Library to the public and researchers collects materials related to the creation and Havel's political influence. He was Vice Chairman of the American neoconservative think tank The Committee on the Present Danger
Vaclav Havel Library : http://www.vaclavhavel-library.org/
Václav Havel died on 18th of December, 2011
Family Evening, 1960
Garden Party 1963
The Increased Difficulty of Concentration, 1968
Guardian Angel, 1968
Butterfly on the Antenna, 1968
The Beggar's Opera, 1972
Mountain hotel 1976
Largo desolato, 1984
Tomorrow's run 1988
The fundamental political essays:
Letter to Dr. Husak, 1975
Power of the Powerless, 1978
Politics and Conscience, 1984
Anatomy of a Reticence, 1985
Acceptance speech for the price of Erasmus, 1986
The meaning of the Charter 77, 1986
Story and totalitarianism, 1987
Word on the Word 1989
Oficial website: http://www.vaclavhavel.cz/
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